A household survey of NEMAF (2011) conducted in 11 districts of the Madhesh/Terai region of Nepal described about the public perceptions towards social harmony, security and governance. It shows that harmony situation is improving gradually; local governance and deep rooted corruption appear to be the major challenge to be curbed in time and improved further. The study also finds that the incidence and chances of conflict has been decreasing in Madhesh and most of the Madheshi people feel themselves safe and secure as compared with the period of Madheshi uprising and perceive crime and violence to be decreasing. It also suggests that domestic violence has appeared as a threat to social order, the presence of open and porous border is added insecurity in Madhesh, opacity in local budget distribution and lack of accountability is creating problems in development of Madhesh. The Madheshi people, mainly cited poverty and unemployment as major problem and were concerned much with corruption control. They mainly desired awareness programs and road construction.

Furthermore, it observed that almost 50 percent of the total population of Nepal lives in Madhesh/Terai districts; and about 34% of them are Madheshis. Although the population size is big, the Madheshi people have been facing the dual problem of identity-based discrimination and systematic under-representation in state mechanisms. Despite being rich in resources, the Tarai remains dismally poor. Moreover, their presence in political, economic, social and development sectors is also negligible.

Hence, targeting the pertinent issues on socio-political, economic and existing conflict situation in Madhesh, the NEMAF with support from DanidaHUGOU implemented Strengthening Civil Society for Accountable program in Morang, Dhanusha, Parsa and Rupandehi districts. LIFE Nepal was the local program implementing partner NGO of NEMAF for Dhanusha district.